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fragment, fraction, part, piece, portion, section, segment
The whole is equal to the sum of its parts—part being a general term for any of the components of a whole. But how did the whole come apart? Fragment suggests that breakage has occurred ( fragments of the vase) and often refers to a brittle substance such as glass or pottery. Segment suggests that the whole has been separated along natural or pre-existing lines of division ( a segment of an orange), and section suggests a substantial and clearly separate part that fits closely with other parts to form the whole ( a section of the bookcase). Fraction usually suggests a less substantial but still clearly delineated part ( a fraction of her income), and a portion is a part that has been allotted or assigned to someone ( her portion of the program). Finally, the very frequently used piece is any part that is separate from the whole ( we're missing two pieces from the jigsaw puzzle).