the name of eight Seleucid kings, notably. Antiochus III (circa 242–187 bc), reigned 223–187 bc; known as Antiochus the Great. He restored and expanded the Seleucid empire. Antiochus IV (circa 215–163 bc), son of Antiochus III; reigned 175–163 bc; known as Antiochus Epiphanes. His attempt to Hellenize the Jews resulted in the revival of Jewish nationalism and the Maccabean revolt.