( 1802–85), French poet, novelist, and playwright; full name Victor-Marie Hugo. His belief that theater should express both the grotesque and the sublime of human existence overturned existing conventions. Notable works: Hernani (drama, 1830), Les Feuilles d’automne (poems, 1831), Notre-Dame de Paris (novel, 1831), and Les Misérables (novel, 1862).
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