Ivan I (circa 1304–41), grand duke of Muscovy 1328–40. He strengthened and enlarged the duchy, making Moscow the ecclesiastical capital in 1326.
Ivan II (1326–59), grand duke of Muscovy 1353–59; known as Ivan the Red.
Ivan III (1440–1505), grand duke of Muscovy 1462–1505; known as Ivan the Great. He consolidated and enlarged his territory, defending it against a Tartar invasion in 1480.
Ivan IV (1530–84), grand duke of Muscovy 1533–47 and first tsar of Russia 1547–84; known as Ivan the Terrible. In 1581, Ivan killed his eldest son, Ivan, in a fit of rage; the succession passed to his mentally handicapped second son, Fyodor.