the name of 18 kings of France. Louis I (778–840), son of Charlemagne; king of the West Franks and Holy Roman Emperor 814–840. Louis II (846–879), reigned 877–879. Louis III (863–882), son of Louis II; reigned 879–882. Louis IV (921–954), reigned 936–954. Louis V (967–987), reigned 979–987. Louis VI (1081–1137), reigned 1108–37. Louis VII (1120–80), reigned 1137–80. Louis VIII (1187–1226), reigned 1223–26. Louis IX (1214–70), son of Louis VIII; reigned 1226–70; canonized as St. Louis. He conducted two unsuccessful crusades, dying of plague in Tunis during the second. Feast day, August 25. Louis X (1289–1316), reigned 1314–16. Louis XI (1423–83), son of Charles VII; reigned 1461–83. He continued his father’s work in laying the foundations of a united France ruled by an absolute monarchy. Louis XII (1462–1515), reigned 1498–1515. Louis XIII (1601–43), son of Henry IV of France; reigned 1610–43. During his minority the country was ruled by his mother Marie de Médicis. From 1624, he was heavily influenced in policymaking by his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu. Louis XIV (1638–1715), son of Louis XIII; reigned 1643–1715; known as the Sun King. His reign represented the high point of the Bourbon dynasty and of French power in Europe. His almost constant wars of expansion united Europe against him, however, and gravely weakened France’s financial position. Louis XV (1710–74), great-grandson and successor of Louis XIV; reigned 1715–74. He led France into the Seven Years War (1756–63). Louis XVI (1754–93), grandson and successor of Louis XV; reigned 1774–92. His minor concessions and reforms in the face of the emerging French Revolution proved disastrous. As the revolution became more extreme, he was executed with his wife, Marie Antoinette, and the monarchy was abolished. Louis XVII (1785–95), son of Louis XVI; titular king who died in prison during the revolution. Louis XVIII (1755–1824), brother of Louis XVI; reigned 1814–24. After his nephew Louis XVII’s death, he became titular king in exile until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when he returned to Paris on the summons of Talleyrand and was officially restored to the throne.