1.1 Richard I ( 1157–99), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; reigned 1189–99; known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart. He led the Third Crusade, defeating Saladin at Arsuf (1191), but failed to capture Jerusalem. Returning home, he was held hostage by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI until being released in 1194 on payment of a huge ransom.
1.2 Richard II ( 1367–1400), son of the Black Prince; reigned 1377–99. During his minority the government was dominated by his uncle John of Gaunt. Following his minority, he executed or banished most of his former opponents. His confiscation of his uncle John of Gaunt’s estate on the latter’s death provoked Henry Bolingbroke’s return from exile to overthrow him.
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