Part of the Indian Mogul empire, Afghanistan became independent in the mid 18th century. It was occupied by Soviet forces 1979–89; after they withdrew, the country was thrown into turmoil with various Islamic groups struggling for power. The Taliban seized power in 1996; following the attacks of September 11, 2001, US-led forces invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban. A new government was formed, and a constitution was signed January 16, 2004, but instability continued in many areas of the country
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