1A town or village under the shadow of a castle.
- The settlers were moving out on their own, creating new social units - manors, lordships, abbeys, bourgs - where none had existed before.
- Only in very special circumstances could either castle or bourg flourish in the absence of nearby manors to sustain them.
- The city achieves its own administrative union in 1423, by the ‘Union privilege’, which puts an end to a long history of internal problems between the civitas and the two bourgs.
1.1A French market town.
- In contrast, most southern industry was artisanal and centred in small towns: in the bourgs around Brignoles, for example, there were perfumeries, soap and paper works, and tanneries (fifteen in Barjols alone).
- Armed mobilizations usually originated in small towns or market bourgs and involved large numbers of rural communes, while unarmed crowds gathered mainly in cities and towns.
- Furthermore, rebels in the towns and market bourgs planned the mobilizations of nearby rural communes and they organized regional gatherings in their own localities.
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