1.1 Charles I ( 1600–49), son of James I; reigned 1625–49. His reign was dominated by the deepening religious and constitutional crisis that resulted in the English Civil War 1642–49. After the battle of Naseby, Charles tried to regain power in alliance with the Scots, but his forces were defeated in 1648; he was tried by a special Parliamentary court and beheaded.
1.2 Charles II ( 1630–85), son of Charles I; reigned 1660–85. Charles was restored to the throne after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s regime. Although he displayed considerable adroitness in handling the difficult constitutional situation, religious and political strife continued during his reign.
1.1 Charles I ( 1500–58), son of Philip I; reigned 1516–56; Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) 1519–56. His reign was characterized by the struggle against Protestantism in Germany, rebellion in Castile, and war with France 1521–44. Exhausted by these struggles, Charles handed Naples, the Netherlands, and Spain over to his son Philip II and the imperial Crown to his brother Ferdinand before retiring to a monastery.
1.1 Charles I see Charlemagne.
1.5 Charles V Charles I of Spain (see Charles2).
1.6 Charles VI ( 1685–1740), reigned 1711–40. His claim to the Spanish throne instigated the War of the Spanish Succession, but he was ultimately unsuccessful. He drafted the Pragmatic Sanction in an attempt to ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa succeeded to the Habsburg dominions; this triggered the War of the Austrian Succession after his death.