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chromosome

Syllabification: chro·mo·some
Pronunciation: /ˈkrōməˌsōm
 
/

Definition of chromosome in English:

noun

Biology
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.

Each chromosome consists of a DNA double helix bearing a linear sequence of genes, coiled and recoiled around aggregated proteins (histones). Their number varies from species to species: humans have 22 pairs plus the two sex chromosomes (two X chromosomes in females, one X and one Y in males). During cell division, each DNA strand is duplicated, and the chromosomes condense to become visible as distinct pairs of chromatids joined at the centromere. Bacteria and viruses lack a nucleus and have a single chromosome without histones

Example sentences
  • Ring chromosomes, chromatid exchanges and polyploidies were also observed at some treatments.
  • The sizes of the two centromeres from the homologous chromosomes are different.
  • The sex chromosomes are placed to the right of the smallest autosomal chromosomes.

Origin

late 19th century: coined in German from Greek khrōma 'color' + sōma 'body'.

Derivatives

chromosomal

1
Pronunciation: /ˌkrōməˈsōməl/
adjective
Example sentences
  • The number of ovulated oocytes per female and the chromosomal constitution of these in vivo matured oocytes were analysed.
  • The centromere is responsible for two key chromosomal functions in mitosis and meiosis.
  • Numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities within each metaphase were recorded.

Definition of chromosome in:

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