The permanent professional branches of a government’s administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected politicians.
- The permanent bureaucracy of government, the civil service, took more and more control.
- This is a central part of government policy, not just for the civil service, but for the public sector as a whole.
- They were excluded from top jobs in politics, the civil service and the army.
Late 18th century: originally applied to the part of the service of the British East India Company conducted by staff who did not belong to the army or navy.
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