A class of echinoderms that comprises the sea urchins.
- Ophiuroidea is grouped with Echinoidea and Holothuroidea based on the closed ambicular grooves.
- Clark endorsed splitting L. sexiesperforata from Mellita but Mortensen used the name Leodia as a subgenus of Mellita in his extremely influential Monograph of the Echinoidea.
- BNip3-related sequences were found in all major lineages of Bilateria, from Echinoidea and Ascidiacea to mammals.
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