The reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
- The two-dimensional pattern of colonization also played a major role, increasing the number of source populations for each newly founded population and thus strongly reducing the founder effect.
- Demographic history appears to have been stable for the auklets throughout the past several million years, and a founder effect associated with their speciation is unlikely.
- The differences between replicates possibly result from a founder effect.
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