A hardened impervious layer, typically of clay, occurring in or below the soil and impairing drainage and plant growth.
- A hardpan or impervious layer of soil (called caliche in the Southwest's low deserts) might be the cause.
- The simplest way to see if your soil has a hardpan or compaction layer below the surface is to take a metal rod and walk around your property sticking it into the ground.
- A reader in Tucson says he plays public courses where the greenside bunkers have just a thin layer of sand over hardpan.
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