1.1 Zoology Situated on the same side of the body as the heart and major blood vessels (i.e., in chordates, ventral).
- Well-preserved centra show paired subcentral foramina, located on either side of the hemal ridge at a level slightly behind the midpoint of the centrum.
- The first caudal vertebra is identified as the most anterior vertebra that has paired haemal flanges extending along the ventral surface of the centrum.
- This process articulates with slim unpaired haemal spines which, in turn, articulate with the axonosts of the anal fin.
Mid 19th century: from Greek haima 'blood' + -al.
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