Logic The principle that one (and one only) of two contradictory propositions must be true.
- This is likely because in logic a paradox is going to be translated as a strict contradiction - a clear violation of the law of the excluded middle.
- In his Hamburg lecture in 1921, Hilbert first presented the idea of using choice functions to deal with the principle of the excluded middle in a formal system for arithmetic.
- In 1913 Lesniewski published an article on the law of the excluded middle, then in the following year a publication on Russell's paradox.
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