Plants of relatively simple or primitive characteristics, especially those that are not vascular plants, i.e., algae, mosses, liverworts, and sometimes fungi.
- This has enforced a ‘dry’ mode of pollination in contrast to the motile ‘wet’ mode of gamete penetration still found in lower plants and some primitive gymnosperms (cycads, Gingko).
- It has also been found in lower plants, green algae, and diatoms.
- In many lower plants, the gametophyte phase is the dominant plant form; for example, the familiar mosses are the gametophyte form of the plants.
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