1A dualistic religious system with Christian, Gnostic, and pagan elements, founded in Persia in the 3rd century by Manes (circa 216-circa 276). The system was based on a supposed primeval conflict between light and darkness. It spread widely in the Roman Empire and in Asia, and survived in eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) until the 13th century.
- The kings converted to Manichaeism, the ‘religion of light’, imported by refugees from the Middle East.
- Gnosticism eventually declined and was replaced by Manichaeism, founded by Mani.
- After abandoning Manicheism he turned to Neoplatism to elucidate his metaphysical thoughts about God.
1.1Religious or philosophical dualism.
- Central to its argument is the idea that the novel offers a critique of essentialism and Manicheism.
- The possibility of attaining paradise lies, instead, in the deconstruction of Manicheism by means of the integration of opposites.
- For gone is the implied but relatively crude Manichaeism of the earlier books.
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