1Relating to or denoting the main culture of the Middle Paleolithic period in Europe, between the Acheulian and Aurignacian periods (chiefly 80,000–35,000 years ago), and associated with Neanderthal peoples.
- By 1869 his scheme for European prehistory was fairly well elaborated and included: the Thenasian (for the now obsolete Eolithic), Chellean, Mousterian, Solutrean, Aurignacian, Magdalenian, and Robenhausian.
- Excavations have recovered several flint handaxes of Mousterian type to the east of the rock shelters, suggestive of Middle Palaeolithic occupation around if not within the shelters.
- The next culture/technology/industry is called Middle Stone Age or Mousterian (depending on whether the artifacts are recovered in Africa or Europe).
Late 19th century: from French moustérien, from Le Moustier, a cave in southwestern France where objects from this culture were found.
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