An olive-green, gray-green, or brown mineral occurring widely in basalt, peridotite, and other basic igneous rocks. It is a silicate containing varying proportions of magnesium, iron, and other elements.
- Basalt is a fine-grained igneous rock that is primarily composed of the iron- and magnesium-rich minerals pyroxene and olivine and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar.
- Gem-quality olivine (magnesium iron silicate), known as peridot, is an oily olive-green colour.
- The most common phenocryst silicate phases are olivine, plagioclase and augite, typically, although not always, appearing in that order.
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