- Cliffs forming the margins of rifts are thought to have developed in this way, with retreat occurring since the Late Cretaceous in Precambrian to Palaeozoic rocks.
- The Anatolian region has been formed by the amalgamation of smaller continental fragments that were formerly sited at the northern margin of Gondwana during late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic times.
- Pre-Aptian structure reflects both Palaeozoic rifting and Mesozoic modification.
The Paleozoic lasted from about 570 million to 245 million years ago, its end being marked by mass extinctions. The Lower Paleozoic sub-era comprises the Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian periods, and the Upper Paleozoic sub-era comprises the Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian periods. The era began with the first invertebrates with hard external skeletons, notably trilobites, and ended with the rise to dominance of the reptiles.
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