Hard red clay (catlinite) used by North American Indians for tobacco pipes.
- Most descriptions of these artifacts attribute the red material to Ohio pipestone or ‘fire-clay.’
- Various analyses of numerous Havana Hopewell platform pipes from Illinois revealed most to be made of Elkhorn Creek pipestone.
- A similar situation exists with the Mississippian figurines of flint clay that are often misidentified as bauxite or pipestone.
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