- The sediments recovered are of Early Pleistocene to Late Pliocene age.
- These species are widely distributed in Upper Miocene and Pliocene deposits in tropical America, forming a morphologically distinctive group.
- Miocene to middle Pliocene species are widely distributed in Europe, Africa, Australia, North and South America.
The Pliocene epoch lasted from 5.2 million to 1.64 million years ago. Temperatures were falling at this time and many mammals became extinct. The first hominids, including Australopithecus and Homo habilis, appeared.
Mid 19th century: from Greek pleiōn 'more' + kainos 'new'.
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