(In Stoic thought) the vital spirit, soul, or creative force of a person.
- In Stoic philosophy, the pneuma penetrates all things, holding things together.
- Indeed, most cultures have believed in the existence of a vital force: the Chinese call it chi; the Hindus know it as prana; the ancient Greeks used to call it pneuma or psyche, while the Romans talked about three kinds of spirits.
- Ruah, in Hebrew, and pneuma, in Greek, are often translated ‘spirit’ but both literally mean ‘breath.’
Greek, literally 'that which is breathed or blown'.
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