A large coniferous tree with flattened needles of two different sizes, grown for pulp and as an ornamental. It occurs chiefly along the Pacific coast from northern California to Alaska and in the northern Rocky Mountains.
- Tsuga heterophylla, family Pinaceae
- Red Crossbills typically inhabit mature conifer forests, and the different types tend to specialize on preferred trees, including western hemlock, lodgepole pine and Engleman spruce.
- Eventually, dwarf mistletoe plants steal enough water, minerals, and nutrients to kill the ponderosa and lodgepole pines, Douglas-firs, western larches, and western hemlocks they attack.
- Closer to the sea, where the terrain is smoother, forests of Sitka spruce and western hemlock have developed.
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