- the capital of Russia, situated at the centre of the vast plain of European Russia, on the River Moskva; population 10,470,300 (est. 2008). Russian name Moskva.
Moscow became the capital when Ivan the Terrible proclaimed himself the first tsar of Russia in the 16th century. Peter the Great moved his capital to St Petersburg in 1712, but after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 Moscow was made the capital of the Soviet Union and seat of the new Soviet government, with its centre in the Kremlin