(In the Roman Catholic Church) a member of certain religious orders of women living communally according to an ecclesiastical rule in the same way as nuns.
- In Scotland there were a dozen or so nunneries, mainly Cistercian, and in Ireland about ten of the 140 monasteries were nunneries, all of them for regular canonesses.
- By 1216 there were approximately 700 houses and some 13,000 monks, nuns, canons, and canonesses.
- Hroswitha became a canoness and was allowed to leave the convent for outside visits.
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