A function whose result is unity for the members of a given set and zero for all non-members.
- By his law of varying action he made the initial and final coordinates the independent variables of the characteristic function.
- Perhaps his most famous work was Characteristic Functions which studied the properties of characteristic functions and their applications.
- In particular in two papers published in 1900 and 1901, he proved the central limit theorem using a technique based on characteristic functions.
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