- Most alloying elements, such as chromium, columbium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, tantalum, and vanadium stabilize the phase to the extent that a mixed - phase or an entirely phase alloy can persist down to room temperature.
- The gas tungsten arc welding process is used for the pure columbium and for the lower strength commercial alloys.
- To eliminate the intergranular corrosion, it is necessary either to reduce carbon to very low levels, or to add titanium and columbium to tie up the carbon and nitrogen.
Early 19th century: modern Latin, from Columbia, a poetic name for America from the name of Christopher Columbus (see Columbus, Christopher).
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