noun[mass noun] Biochemistry
A compound which is an oxidized dimer of cysteine and is the form in which cysteine often occurs in organic tissue.
- Chemical formula: C6H12N2O4S2.
- The sulfur-containing amino acids are methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine, and taurine.
- Cysteine in the extracellular space is mostly oxidized to cystine.
- Glutathione conjugation uses Nacetylcysteine, cysteine, and methionine; cystine is used for sulfation; and glucuronidation requires pantothenic acid.
Mid 19th century: from Greek kustis 'bladder' (because it was first isolated from urinary calculi) + -ine4.
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