(1937–2006), Iraqi president, prime minister, and head of the armed forces 1979–2003; full name Saddam bin Hussein at-Takriti. During his presidency Iraq fought a war with Iran (1980-8) and invaded Kuwait (1990), from which Iraqi forces were expelled in the Gulf War of 1991. He also ordered punitive attacks on Kurdish rebels in the north of Iraq and on the Marsh Arabs in the south. He was overthrown in 2003 following the invasion and occupation of Iraq by US-led forces. He was later tried for crimes against humanity and executed.
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