India was the source of four of the world’s chief religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism— and was home to an early civilization around the the Indus Valley from circa 2600 bc. Much of India was united under a Muslim sultanate based around Delhi from the 12th century until incorporated in the Mogul empire in the 16th century. Colonial intervention began in the late 17th century, particularly by the British; in 1765 the East India Company acquired the right to administer Bengal. In 1858, after the Indian Mutiny, the Crown took over the Company’s authority, and in 1876 Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Independence was won in 1947, at which time India was partitioned, Pakistan being created from mainly Muslim territories in the north-east (now Bangladesh) and the north-west. A member of the Commonwealth, India is the second most populous country in the world
Via Latin from Greek India, from Indos, the name of the River Indus, from Persian Hind, from Sanskrit sindhu 'river', specifically 'the Indus', also 'the region around the Indus' (compare with Sindhi). Both the Greeks and the Persians extended the name to include all the country east of the Indus. Compare with Hindi and Hindu.
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