(1920–2005), Polish cleric, pope 1978–2005; born Karol Jozef Wojtyla; canonized in 2014 as St John Paul II. The first non-Italian pope since 1522, he upheld the Roman Catholic Church’s traditional opposition to artificial means of contraception and abortion, homosexuality, the ordination of women, and the relaxation of the rule of celibacy for priests.
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