A very small evergreen Mediterranean oak which sometimes remains as a shrub. It has prickly holly-like leaves and was formerly prized as a host plant for kermes insects.
- Quercus coccifera, family Fagaceae.
- It is made from the dried, pulverized bodies of a scale insect, Coccus ilicis, which is a parasite on an ilex oak, the kermes oak.
- In Bulgaria the Kermes oak is found in the Strouma valley, to the south of the Kresna gorge as well as in the southern part of Mesta valley.
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