The traditional medieval system of farming in England, in which land was divided into strips and managed by an individual only in the growing season, being available to the community for grazing animals during the rest of the year.
- In the end, the open-field system of crop rotation was an obstacle to increased agricultural productivity.
- H. L. Gray's well-known book English Field Systems opened up the concept of a ‘Celtic’ infield-outfield system developing in a highland environment, very different from the open-field system of the English Midlands.
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