Surgery in which the heart is exposed and the blood made to bypass it.
- Beating heart surgery (ie, open-heart surgery without the use of a bypass machine) and endoscopic vein harvesting will be discussed in this session.
- Procedures with a risk of air embolism include surgery to the arteries or veins, injections during surgery, large blood transfusions, and open-heart surgery.
- One-way vent valves play a crucial role during open-heart surgery by redirecting blood from the heart to a heart-lung machine.
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