1.1 Philip II ( 382–336 bc), father of Alexander the Great, reigned 359–336; known as Philip II of Macedon. He unified and expanded ancient Macedonia as well as carrying out a number of army reforms. His victory over Athens and Thebes at the battle of Chaeronea in 338 established his hegemony over Greece.
1.6 Philip VI ( 1293–1350), reigned 1328–50; known as Philip of Valois. The founder of the Valois dynasty, Philip came to the throne on the death of Charles IV, whose only child was a girl and barred from ruling. His claim was challenged by Edward III of England; the dispute developed into the Hundred Years War.
1.1 Philip I ( 1478–1506), reigned 1504-6; known as Philip the Handsome. Son of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I, in 1496 Philip married the infanta Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. After Isabella’s death he ruled Castile jointly with Joanna, establishing the Habsburgs as the ruling dynasty in Spain.
1.5 Philip V ( 1683–1746), grandson of Louis XIV, reigned 1700–24 and 1724–46. His selection as successor to Charles II, and Louis XIV’s insistence that he remain an heir to the French throne, gave rise to the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). In 1724 Philip abdicated in favour of his son Louis I, but returned to the throne following Louis’s death.