1.1 Richard I (1157–99), son of Henry II, reigned 1189–99; known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart. He led the Third Crusade, defeating Saladin at Arsuf (1191) but failing to capture Jerusalem. Returning home, he was held hostage by the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI until being released in 1194 on payment of a huge ransom.
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