(1852–83), English economist and social reformer. He taught both undergraduates and workers' adult education classes in Oxford and worked with the poor in London’s East End. He is best known for his pioneering work The Industrial Revolution (1884).
(1889–1975), English historian; full name Arnold Joseph Toynbee. He is best known for his twelve-volume Study of History (1934–61), in which he traced the pattern of growth, maturity, and decay of different civilizations.