Each of the fourth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the superior oblique muscle of the eyeball.
- The exceptions are the superior oblique, which is enervated by the trochlear nerve (Cranial nerve IV), and the lateral rectus, which is enervated by the abducens (Cranial Nerve VI).
- The trochlear nerve nuclei are located ventral to the mesencephalic aqueduct.
- Each trochlear nerve makes its exit through the caudal tectum (the dorsal portion of the midbrain), immediately lateral to the frenulum of the superior medullary velum.
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