An optical microscope used to detect particles smaller than the wavelength of light by illuminating them at an angle and observing the light scattered by the Tyndall effect against a dark background.
- The tiny particles in colloidal gold were not seen directly until the early twentieth century, when the Austrian chemist Richard Adolf Zsigmondy invented the ultramicroscope, a device capable of resolving such small objects.
- Nevertheless the apparent trajectory of an element in the ultramicroscope is not a curve without tangents.
- The exsistence of the ultramicroscopes, and their primacy in their day, is arcane, but not controversial.
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