A gum resin produced by various East Asian trees, used as a yellow pigment and in medicine as a purgative.
- The trees belong to the genus Garcinia (family Guttiferae), in particular G. xanthochymus
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- All were identified as gamboge, a yellow gum resin that is an exudate from the Garcinia tree found in India, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
- There are many other wild and cultivated Garcinia spp, some providing sweet fruits, others tart seasonings, medicines, dyes, the artist's pigment gamboge, substances used for tanning leather, and timber.
- Among the guilty fugitives, whose departure has made monotone what was polychrome, are indigo, gamboge and brown lake (purple).
early 18th century (earlier in the Latin form): from modern Latin gambaugium, from Cambodia.