denizen labels

What do you call someone from ——? Often that’s not an easy question to answer, whether it’s a city, state, province, or country. Anyone who lives in Columbus, Ohio—or the other Columbuses in Georgia, Nebraska, and Indiana—is called a Columbusite. But someone from the small town of Columbus, Mississippi, is called a Columbian. Those inconsistencies can be a little confusing, but at least they’re undisputed within a given locale.

Sometimes the authorities can’t agree about a single locale. Someone from Michigan is (formerly by statute) called a Michiganian—but many Michiganians prefer to be called Michiganders. Almost no Michiganians want to be called *Michiganites, but the United States Government Printing Office (which puts out a style manual) specifies *Michiganite. Best for Michiganians and others to follow the law or local preference—not what some stylesheet-writer in Washington says.

Loose guidelines exist for naming denizens. George R. Stewart, a historian and onomastician, developed seven main guidelines—what H.L. Mencken called “Stewart’s Laws of Municipal Onomastics”—that were cited in the best up-to-date work on this subject, Paul Dickson’s Labels for Locals (1997). Here they are: (1) If the place name ends in -a or -ia, add -n <Alaska, Alaskan> <California, Californian>. (2) If the name ends in -i or a sounded -e, add -an <Hawaii, Hawaiian> <Albuquerque, Albuquerquean>. (3) If the name ends in -on, add -ian <Oregon, Oregonian>. (4) If the name ends in -y, change the -y to an -i and add -an <Albany, Albanian>. (5) If the name ends in -o, add -an <Chicago, Chicagoan>. (6) If the name ends in a consonant or a silent -e, add either -ite or -er, depending on euphony <Maine, Mainer> <New Hampshire, New Hampshireite>. (7) If the name ends in -polis, change that to -politan <Minneapolis, Minneapolitan>.

What follows are some of the less obvious forms, in places overriding Dickson’s preferences because additional research showed this to be necessary.

States

  • Alabama Alabamian, Alabaman

  • Alaska Alaskan

  • Arizona Arizonan, Arizonian (rare)

  • Arkansas Arkansan, Arkansawyer, Arkie

  • California Californian

  • Colorado Coloradan, Coloradoan

  • Connecticut Nutmegger, Connecticuter (USGPO)

  • Delaware Delawarean

  • Florida Floridian

  • Georgia Georgian

  • Hawaii Hawaiian

  • Idaho Idahoan

  • Illinois Illinoisan /il-ә-noy-әn/ (pref. not Illinoisian)

  • Indiana Hoosier, Indianan, *Indianian

  • Iowa Iowan, Iowegian

  • Kansas Kansan

  • Kentucky Kentuckian

  • Louisiana Louisianian, *Louisianan

  • Maine Mainer

  • Maryland Marylander

  • Massachusetts Bay Stater (by state law), Massachusettsan (USGPO)

  • Michigan Michigander (by popular consensus), Michiganian (official), *Michiganite (rare, but recommended by USGPO)

  • Minnesota Minnesotan

  • Mississippi Mississippian

  • Missouri Missourian

  • Montana Montanan

  • Nebraska Nebraskan

  • Nevada Nevadan

  • New Hampshire New Hampshirite

  • New Jersey New Jerseyan, New Jerseyite (USGPO)

  • New Mexico New Mexican

  • New York New Yorker

  • North Carolina North Carolinian, Tarheel

  • North Dakota North Dakotan

  • Ohio Ohioan

  • Oklahoma Oklahoman, Sooner, Okie

  • Oregon Oregonian

  • Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian

  • Rhode Island Rhode Islander

  • South Carolina South Carolinian

  • South Dakota South Dakotan

  • Tennessee Tennessean, Tennesseean

  • Texas Texan

  • Utah Utahn (preferred), Utahan

  • Vermont Vermonter

  • Virginia Virginian

  • Washington Washingtonian

  • West Virginia West Virginian

  • Wisconsin Wisconsinite

  • Wyoming Wyomingite

U.S. Cities

  • Akron Akronite

  • Albany Albanian

  • Albuquerque Albuquerquean, Albuquerquian

  • Anchorage Anchorageite, Anchoragite

  • Annapolis Annapolitan

  • Austin Austinite

  • Baltimore Baltimorean

  • Boston Bostonian

  • Buffalo Buffalonian

  • Cambridge Cantabrigian

  • Canton, Ohio Cantonian

  • Chicago Chicagoan

  • Cincinnati Cincinnatian

  • Cleveland Clevelander

  • Columbus (Ga., Ind., Neb., Ohio) Columbusite

  • Columbus (Miss.) Columbian

  • Corpus Christi Corpus Christian

  • Detroit Detroiter

  • District of Columbia Washingtonian

  • Dodge City Dodge Citian

  • El Paso El Pasoan

  • Fairbanks Fairbanksan, Fairbanksian

  • Fort Worth Fort Worthian, Fort Worther

  • Grand Rapids Grand Rapidian

  • Greensboro, N.C. Greensburgher

  • Hanover, Pa. Hanoverian

  • Harrisburg Harrisburger

  • Honolulu Honolulan

  • Houston Houstonian

  • Independence, Mo. Independent

  • Indianapolis Indianapolitan

  • Jackson Jacksonian

  • Jersey City Jersey Cityite

  • Kansas City Kansas Citian

  • Knoxville Knoxvillian

  • Las Cruces Crucen

  • Las Vegas Las Vegan

  • Lawrence, Kan. Lawrentian

  • Lawrence, Mass. Lawrencian

  • Lebanon, Pa. Lebanonian

  • Los Angeles Angeleno, *Los Angelean

  • Louisville Louisvillian

  • Madison Madisonian

  • Manhattan (N.Y. or Kan.) Manhattanite

  • Maui Mauian

  • Memphis Memphian

  • Miami Miamian

  • Milwaukee Milwaukeean

  • Minneapolis Minneapolitan

  • Nashville Nashvillian

  • Newark Newarker

  • New Orleans New Orleanian, New Orleansian

  • New York City New Yorker

  • Oklahoma City Oklahoma Cityan, *Oklahoma Citian

  • Omaha Omahan

  • Palm Beach Palm Beacher

  • Pensacola Pensacolian

  • Philadelphia Philadelphian

  • Phoenix Phoenician

  • Pittsburgh Pittsburgher

  • Pontiac Pontiacker

  • Portland Portlander

  • Princeton Princetonian

  • Providence Providentian

  • Sacramento Sacramentan

  • Saginaw Saginawian

  • Salt Lake City Salt Laker

  • San Antonio San Antonian

  • San Diego San Diegan

  • San Francisco San Franciscan

  • San Jose San Josean

  • Santa Fe Santa Fean

  • Saratoga Springs Saratogian

  • Saugus Saugonian

  • Sault Sainte Marie Sooite

  • Savannah Savannahian

  • Schenectady Schenectadian

  • Seattle Seattleite, *Seattlite

  • Shreveport Shreveporter

  • Spokane Spokanite

  • St. Louis St. Louisan

  • St. Paul St. Paulite

  • Tallahassee Tallahasseean

  • Tampa Tampan

  • Taos Taoseno

  • Troy Trojan

  • Tucson Tucsonan, Tucsonian, Tucsonite

  • Twin Cities Twin Citian

  • Wilkes-Barre Wilkes-Barrean

  • Williamsport Williamsporter

Countries

  • Afghanistan Afghan

  • Argentina Argentine, Argentinian

  • Azerbaijan Azerbaijani

  • Bahamas Bahamian

  • Belarus Belarusian, Belarusan

  • Belgium Belgian

  • Cayman Islands Caymanian, Cayman Islander

  • China Chinese

  • Colombia Colombian

  • Czech Republic Czech

  • Denmark Dane

  • Egypt Egyptian

  • El Salvador Salvadoran (American English), Salvadorian (British English)

  • England English

  • Finland Finn, Finnish, Finlander

  • France French

  • Germany German

  • Great Britain Briton

  • Greece Greek

  • Greenland Greenlander

  • Grenada Grenadian, Grenadan

  • Guam Guamanian

  • Guyana Guyanese

  • Haiti Haitian

  • Honduras Honduran

  • Hungary Hungarian

  • Indonesia Indonesian

  • Iran Iranian

  • Iraq Iraqi

  • Ireland Irish

  • Israel Israeli

  • Italy Italian

  • Jamaica Jamaican

  • Japan Japanese

  • Jordan Jordanian

  • Kazakhstan Kazakhstani

  • Kenya Kenyan

  • Korea Korean

  • Kuwait Kuwaiti

  • Laos Lao, Laotian

  • Lebanon Lebanese

  • Libya Libyan

  • Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner

  • Luxembourg Luxembourger

  • Macedonia Macedonian

  • Madagascar Malagasy

  • Malaysia Malaysian

  • Maldova Maldovan

  • Mali Malian

  • Malta Maltese

  • Martinique Martiniquais

  • Mexico Mexican

  • Micronesia Micronesian

  • Monaco Monegasque, *Monacan

  • Mongolia Mongolian

  • Morocco Moroccan

  • Myanmar Burmese, Myanmarese

  • Nepal Nepalese

  • The Netherlands Netherlander, Hollander, Netherlandian

  • New Zealand New Zealander

  • Nicaragua Nicaraguan

  • Niger Nigerien

  • Nigeria Nigerian

  • Norway Norwegian

  • Oman Omani

  • Pakistan Pakistani

  • Palau Palauan

  • Panama Panamanian

  • Paraguay Paraguayan

  • Peru Peruvian

  • Philippines Filipino

  • Poland Pole

  • Portugal Portuguese

  • Puerto Rico Puerto Rican

  • Qatar Qatari

  • Romania Romanian

  • Russia Russian

  • Rwanda Rwandan

  • San Marino Sammarinese, San Marinese

  • Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian

  • Scotland Scot

  • Senegal Senegalese

  • Seychelles Seychellois

  • Singapore Singaporean

  • Slovakia Slovak

  • Slovenia Slovene

  • Somalia Somali

  • South Africa South African

  • Spain Spaniard

  • Sri Lanka Sri Lankan, Ceylonese

  • Sudan Sudanese

  • Sumatra Sumatran

  • Suriname Surinamese, Surinamer

  • Swaziland Swazi

  • Sweden Swede

  • Switzerland Swiss

  • Syria Syrian

  • Tahiti Tahitian

  • Taiwan Taiwanese

  • Tajikistan Tajik

  • Thailand Thai

  • Tobago Tobagonian

  • Togo Togolese

  • Tonga Tongan

  • Trinidad Trinidadian

  • Tunisia Tunisian

  • Turkey Turk

  • Turkmenistan Turkmen (plural Turkmens)

  • Uganda Ugandan

  • Ukraine Ukrainian

  • United States American

  • Uruguay Uruguayan

  • Uzbekistan Uzbek

  • Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu

  • Venezuela Venezuelan

  • Vietnam Vietnamese

  • Virgin Islands Virgin Islander

  • Wales Welsh

  • Zambia Zambian

  • Zimbabwe Zimbabwean

Foreign Cities and Regions

  • Alberta, Canada Albertan

  • Amsterdam, the Netherlands Amsterdammer

  • Athens, Greece Athenian

  • Baghdad, Iraq Baghdadi

  • Bangkok, Thailand Bangkokian

  • Béarn, France Béarnais (not Béarnaise)

  • Beijing, China Beijinger

  • Belgrade, Yugoslavia Belgrader

  • Berlin, Germany Berliner

  • Bern, Switzerland Bernese

  • Birmingham, England Brummie

  • Bogotá, Colombia Bogotano

  • Bologna, Italy Bolognese

  • Bordeaux, France Bordelais

  • British Columbia, Canada British Columbian

  • Brussels, Belgium Bruxellois

  • Budapest, Hungary Budapestiek

  • Buenos Aires, Argentina Porteño

  • Cairo, Egypt Cairene

  • Cambridge, England Cantabrigian

  • Canton, China Cantonese

  • Cheshire, England Cestrian

  • Copenhagen, Denmark Copenhagener

  • Cornwall, England Cornish

  • Devonshire, England Devonian

  • Dijon, France Dijonese

  • Dublin, Ireland Dubliner

  • Dundee, Scotland Dundonian

  • Edinburgh, Scotland Edinburgher

  • Exeter, England Exonian

  • Flanders, Belgium Flemish

  • Florence, Italy Florentine

  • Fontainebleau, France Bellifontain

  • Geneva, Switzerland Genevan, Genevese

  • Genoa, Italy Genovese, Genoan

  • Glasgow, Scotland Glaswegian

  • Halifax, Nova Scotia Haligonian

  • Hamburg, Germany Hamburger

  • Hampshire, England Hantsian

  • Hanover, Germany Hanoverian

  • Havana, Cuba Havanan

  • Helsinki, Finland Helsinkian

  • Hong Kong, China Hong Konger, *Hong Kongite, *Hong Kongian

  • Isle of Man, England Manx

  • Isle of Wight, England Vectian

  • Istanbul, Turkey Istanbullu

  • Jerusalem, Israel Jerusalemite

  • Johannesburg, S. Africa Johannesburger

  • Lima, Peru Limeño

  • Lisbon, Portugal Lisboan

  • Liverpool, England Liverpudlian

  • London, England Londoner

  • Lyons, France Lyonnais

  • Madrid, Spain Madrileno

  • Majorca, Spain Majorcan

  • Manchester, England Mancunian

  • Manila, Philippines Manilite

  • Manitoba, Canada Manitoban

  • Melbourne, Australia Melburnian

  • Metz, France Messin

  • Mexico City, Mexico Chilango

  • Milan, Italy Milanese

  • Montenegro, Yugoslavia Montenegrin

  • Moscow, Russia Muscovite

  • Naples, Italy Neapolitan

  • Nazareth, Israel Nazarene

  • New Brunswick, Canada New Brunswicker

  • Newcastle, Australia Novocastrian

  • Newcastle, England Geordie

  • Newfoundland, Canada Newfoundlander, Newfie

  • New South Wales, Australia New South Welshman

  • Nice, France Niçois

  • Norfolk, England North Anglian

  • Northumberland, England Northumbrian

  • Nova Scotia, Canada Nova Scotian

  • Ontario, Canada Ontarian

  • Oxford, England Oxonian

  • Paris, France Parisian

  • Prague, Czech Republic Praguer

  • Prince Edward Island, Canada Prince Edward Islander

  • Quebec, Canada Quebecer

  • Quito, Ecuador Quiteño

  • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carioca

  • Rome, Italy Roman

  • Saint-Cloud, France Clodoaldien

  • Salzburg, Austria Salzburger

  • San Juan, Puerto Rico San Juanero

  • Santiago, Chile Santiaguino

  • Sao Paulo, Brazil Paulista

  • Saskatchewan, Canada Saskatchewanian

  • Serbia, Yugoslavia Serb

  • Shanghai, China Shanghailander

  • Shropshire, England Salopian

  • St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Cruzan

  • Stockholm, Sweden Stockholmer

  • St. Petersburg, Russia St. Petersburger

  • Stratford-on-Avon, England Stratfordian

  • Sydney, Australia Sydneysider

  • Tangier, Morocco Tangerine

  • Tasmania, Australia Tasmanian

  • Tehran, Iran Tehrani

  • Tel Aviv, Israel Tel Avivian

  • The Hague, Netherlands Hagenaar

  • Tokyo, Japan Tokyoite

  • Toronto, Canada Torontonian

  • Tripoli, Libya Tripolitan

  • Trois-Rivières, Canada Trifluvien

  • Vancouver, Canada Vancouverite

  • Venice, Italy Venetian

  • Verona, Italy Veronese

  • Vienna, Austria Viennese

  • Winnipeg, Canada Winnipegger


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