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18 Bibliography

18.2 Books

18.2.1 Introduction

A complete book citation must include author or editor details, title, edition information (if an edition other than the first edition is cited), and date and place of publication:

Demaus, Robert, William Tyndale: A Contribution to the Early History of the English Bible, new edn, rev. Richard Lovett (London, 1886).
Watt, R. W., Three Steps to Victory (London, 1957).
Bagnold, Enid, A Diary Without Dates (2nd edn, London, 1978).

See 18.8 for ebook citations.

18.2.2 Author’s name

Some publishers, especially in the humanities, prefer to cite the author’s name as it appears on the title page (the same applies to all personal names, whether of authors or others); this is because some authors insist on being known by their initials while others object to their forenames being cut down. Applying this practice requires the author to exercise the discipline of noting the form as it appears in the book, and not relying on secondary sources, such as library catalogues and other bibliographies. A more pragmatic approach (often adopted in scientific publication ) is to systematically reduce forenames to initials, especially for multi-author works where different contributors may have adopted different practices.

The author’s name should appear at the start of the citation. In bibliography citations the surname is given first, followed by a comma and the given names or initials:

Bailey, Joe

Eliot, T. S.

In scientific works, initials and minimal punctuation are more usual in the reference list:

Feynman R

Nurse PM

See 17.3 for more details of punctuation of authors’ names.

Names that are best left unabbreviated and in natural order in bibliography citations include:

  • • medieval compound names that conjoin a personal name with a toponym, occupation, patronymic, or epithet:

    Hereward the Wake

    Aelred of Rievaulx

  • • pseudonyms that lose their sense if altered:

    Dotted Crotchet

    Afferbeck Lauder

  • • names given as initials only, even if the full name is known:

    EA Games

In a list, such examples would all be ordered by their first element.

If works of one author are cited under different names, use the correct form for each work, and in humanities texts, supply a former name after a later one in parentheses, adding a cross-reference if necessary:

Joukovsky, F., Orphée et ses disciples dans la poésie française et néolatine du XVIe siècle (Geneva, 1970).
Joukovsky, F. (= Joukovsky-Micha, F.), ‘La Guerre des dieux et des géants chezles poètes français du XVIe siècle (1500–1585)’, Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance, xxix (1967), 55–92.

Unless the author’s preference is known to be otherwise, when citing naturalized names that include particles keep the particle with the surname only if it is capitalized. For foreign names follow the correct usage for the language or person in question:

De Long, George Washington

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Musset, Alfred de

Titular prefixes (Sir, Revd, Dr, Captain, etc.) are not needed unless their removal would mislead:

Wood, Mrs Henry, East Lynne, 3 vols (London, 1861).

Two or more authors

With two or three authors (or editors), cite in the order that appears on the title page. Either the first cited name only, or all names before the title, may be inverted so that the surname appears first. Whichever style is chosen must be applied consistently:

King, Roy D., and Morgan, Rodney, A Taste of Prison (London, 1976).
King, Roy D., and Rodney Morgan, A Taste of Prison (London, 1976).

When there are four or more authors, works in the humanities usually cite the first name followed by ‘and others’ or ‘et al.’ (from Latin et alii ‘and others’; note that, depending on style, ‘et al.’ can appear in roman or italic type—consistency is important):

Stewart, Rosemary, and others, eds, Managing in Britain (London, 1994).

In some scientific journals, where it is not unusual for several names to be identified with an article or paper, the policy can be to cite up to six authors before reducing the list to a single name and ‘et al.’, either in roman or italic and sometimes dropping the full point.


Cite works published under a pseudonym that is an author’s literary name under that pseudonym:

Eliot, George, Middlemarch (New York, 1977).
Twain, Mark, A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur’s Court (Harmondsworth, 1971).

In some contexts it may be useful to add a writer’s pseudonym for clarification when a writer publishes under his or her real name:

Dodgson, C. L. [Lewis Carroll], Symbolic Logic (Oxford, 1896).

Conversely, an author known by his or her real name may need to be identified when he or she occasionally publishes under a pseudonym:

Afferbeck Lauder [Alistair Morrison], Let Stalk Strine (Sydney, 1965).

If the bibliography contains works under the author’s true name as well as a pseudonym, the alternative names may be included in both cases to expose the identification:

Coulange, P. [J. Turmel], The Life of the Devil, tr. S. H. Guest (London, 1929).
Turmel, J. [P. Coulange], ‘Histoire de l’angélologie du temps apostolique à la fin du Ve siècle’, Revue d’Histoire et de Littérature Religieuse, iii (1898), 299–308, 407–34, 533–52.


For texts where the author is not known, in bibliography citations Anon. or Anonymous may be used, with like works alphabetized accordingly:

Anon., Stories after Nature (London, 1822).
Do not use Anon. for note citations; simply start the citation with the title:
Stories after Nature (London, 1822).

If the author’s name is not supplied by the book but is known from other sources, the name may be cited in square brackets:

[Balfour, James], Philosophical Essays (Edinburgh, 1768).
[Gibbon, John], Day-Fatality, or, Some Observations on Days Lucky and Unlucky (London, 1678; rev. edn 1686).

18.2.3 Editors, translators, and revisers

Special XML tagging elements are created for editors, translators, and compilers so it is important that they are identified as such.

In books comprising the edited works of a number of authors, or a collection of documents, essays, congress reports, etc., the editor’s name appears first followed by ed. (standing for ‘editor’; plural eds or eds.) before the book title:

Dibdin, Michael, ed., The Picador Book of Crime Writing (London, 1993).
Ashworth, A., ‘Belief, Intent, and Criminal Liability’, in J. Eekelaar and J. Bell, eds., Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence, 3rd ser. (1987), 6–25.
Bucknell, Katherine, and Nicholas Jenkins, eds, W. H. Auden, ‘The Map of All My Youth’: Early Works, Friends, and Influences (Oxford, 1990).

Some styles, including Oxford, insert ‘ed.’ and ‘eds’ within parentheses:

Sampson, Rodney (ed.), Early Romance Texts: An Anthology (Cambridge, 1980).

Editors of literary texts (or of another author’s papers) are cited after the title; in this case ed. (standing for ‘edited by’) remains unchanged even if there is more than one editor:

Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. David Fate Norton and Mary J. Norton (Oxford, 2000).

For note citations, when an author is responsible for the content of the work but not the title (for example letters collected together posthumously), and the author’s name appears as part of that title, there is no need to repeat the author’s name at the start of the citation:

The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, ed. F. L. Jones (Oxford, 1964).
rather than
Shelley, Percy Bysshe, The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, ed. F. L. Jones (Oxford, 1964).
As with editors, translators and revisers are named after the title and are introduced respectively by tr. or trans. (‘translated by’), rev. (‘revised by’):
Albert Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, tr. William Montgomery (n.p., 1910).

Translators or revisers whose contribution is sufficiently substantial for them to count as joint authors are named after the original author.

18.2.4 Organization as author

In the absence of an author or editor, an organization acting in the role of author can be treated as such. Do not use ed. or tr. in these instances:

Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995).

18.2.5 Titles and subtitles

In general the treatment of titles in bibliography matches that of work titles mentioned in text (see Chapter 8). Always take the title from the title page of the work being cited, not the dust jacket or the cover of a paperback edition, and never alter spelling in order to conform to house style. Punctuation in long titles may be lightly edited for the sake of clarity.

Consider truncating long and superfluous subtitles, but not if that would significantly narrow the implied scope of a work. Subtitles are often identified as such on the title page by a line break or a change in font or font size; in a bibliography a subtitle is always divided from the title by a colon.


In most bibliographic styles traditional capitalization rules are applied to titles (see 8.2.3). In practice the choice between upper and lower case is usually instinctive, but will at least downcase the following:




















Unless the exact form is of bibliographic or semantic relevance your primary guide should be to style a title sensibly and consistently throughout a work.

The Importance of Being Earnest: A Trivial Comedy for Serious People
Twenty Years After
Moby-Dick, or, The Whale

Capitalization of foreign titles follows the rules of the language (see Chapter 12); however, the treatment of the first word of a title, subtitle, or parallel title conforms to the style used for English-language titles.

Titles within titles

Titles within titles may be identified by quotation marks. Always capitalize the first word of the nested title; this capitalized word is regarded in some styles as sufficient to identify the subsidiary work:

Grigg, John, The History of ‘The Times’, vi (1993).
O’Conor, Roderick, A Sentimental Journey through ‘Finnegans Wake’, with a Map of the Liffey (Dublin, 1977).
Grigg, John, The History of The Times, vi (1993).

The convention of using roman instead of italic to identify nested titles is established but not recommended; see 7.6. For a further discussion of titles within titles see 8.2.8.

Foreign-language titles

Works should be cited in the form in which they were consulted by the author of the publication that cites them. If the work was consulted in the original foreign-language form, that should be cited as the primary reference; a published English translation may be added to the citation if that is deemed likely to be helpful to the reader:

J. Tschichold: Typographische Gestaltung (Basle, 1955); Eng. trans. as Asymmetric Typography (London, 1967).

Conversely, if a work was consulted in translation, that form should be cited; the original publication may also be included in the citation if that would be helpful (as it will be if the two forms of the title differ significantly):

R. Metz, A Hundred Years of British Philosophy, ed. J. H. Muirhead, trans. J. W. Harvey (1938) [Ger. orig., Die philosophischen Strömungen der Gegenwart in Grossbritannien (1935)]

When it is helpful to include a translation of a foreign-language title for information, the translation follows immediately after the title in roman, within square brackets; quotation marks are not necessary:

Nissan Motor Corporation, Nissan Jidosha 30nen shi [A 30-year history of Nissan Motors] (1965).

Care should be taken with consistency in capitalization in translations of this kind—some styles use essential capitals, others do not.

18.2.6 Chapters and essays in books

The chapter or essay title, which is generally enclosed in quotation marks and conforms to the surrounding capitalization style, is followed by a comma, the word in, and the details of the book. When citing a chapter from a single-author work there is no need to repeat the author’s details:

Ashton, John, ‘Dualism’, in Understanding the Fourth Gospel (Oxford, 1991), 205–37.

The placement of the editor’s name remains unaffected:

Shearman, John, ‘The Vatican Stanze: Functions and Decoration’, in George Holmes, ed., Art and Politics in Renaissance Italy: British Academy Lectures (Oxford, 1993), 185–240.

Quotation marks within chapter titles and essay titles become double quotation marks:

Malcolm, Noel, ‘The Austrian Invasion and the “Great Migration” of the Serbs, 1689–1690’, in Kosovo: A Short History (London, 1990), 139–62.

See 9.2 for more on quotation marks.

If an introduction or foreword has a specific title it can be styled as a chapter in a book; otherwise use introduction or foreword as a descriptor, without quotation marks:

Gill, Roma, introduction in The Complete Works of Christopher Marlow, 1 (Oxford, 1987; repr. 2001).

18.2.7 Volumes

A multi-volume book is a single work with a set structure. Informing readers of the number of volumes being cited is a useful convention that, if followed, must be applied consistently. The number of volumes is provided before the publication information, using an Arabic numeral. In references to a specific volume in a set, however, the number is usually styled in lower-case Roman numerals, although this style may vary: capital or small capital Roman numerals, or Arabic figures, may also be used.

There are two ways of citing a particular location in a multi-volume work: the entire work may be cited and the volume and page location given after the date(s) of publication; or the single relevant volume may be cited with its own date of publication, followed by the relevant page reference. Note in the examples below the use of Arabic and Roman numerals for different purposes:

Vander Straeten, Edmond, La Musique aux Pays-Bas avant le XIXe siècle, 8 vols (Brussels, 1867–88), ii, 367–8.
Vander Straeten, Edmond, La Musique aux Pays-Bas avant le XIXe sièclè, ii (Brussels, 1872), 367–8.

When the volumes of a multi-volume work have different titles, the form is:

Glorieux, P., Aux origines de la Sorbonne, i: Robert de Sorbon (Paris, 1966).
Ward, A. W. and A. E. Waller, eds, The Cambridge History of English Literature, xii: The Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1932), 43–56.

If only the volume title appears on the title page the overall title should still be included, either as directed above or within square brackets after the volume title:

David Hackett Fischer, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America [vol. i of America: A Cultural History] (New York, 1989).

18.2.8 Series title

A series is a (possibly open-ended) collection of individual works. In book citations, a series title is optional but useful information. It always appears in roman type, fully capitalized, and before or within the parentheses that hold publication information. Most, but not all, series are numbered; the volume numbers in the series should follow the series title:

Stones, E. L. G., ed. and tr., Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1174–1328: Some Selected Documents, Oxford Medieval Texts (Oxford, 1970).
Dodgdon, J. McN., The Place-Names of Gloucestershire, 4 vols, English Place-Name Society, 38–41 (1964–5).

18.2.9 Place of publication

Publication details, including the place of publication, are usually inserted within parentheses. The place of publication should normally be given in its modern form, using the English form where one exists:

The Hague (not Den Haag)

Munich (not München)

Turin (not Torino)

Where no place of publication is given n.p. (‘no place’) may be used instead:

Marchetto of Padua, Pomerium, ed. Giuseppe Vecchi (n.p., 1961).
It is sufficient to cite only the first city named by the publisher on the title page. While other cities from which that imprint can originate may also be listed there, it is the custom for publishers to put in first place the branch responsible for originating the book. It is not necessary to include the name of the country, but US state abbreviations can be included, particularly if locations are globally less well known (Boca Raton, FL). Be consistent about the abbreviation system used (FL or Fla. etc.). For punctuation in association with publishers’ names, see 18.2.10.

18.2.10 Publisher

The publisher’s name is not generally regarded as essential information, but it may be included if desired; in the interests of consistency give names of all publishers or none at all. The preferred order is place of publication, publisher, and date, presented in parentheses thus:

(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Publishers’ names may be reduced to the shortest intelligible unit without shortening words (for example, Teubner instead of Druck und Verlag von B. G. Teubner), and terms such as Ltd, & Co., and plc can be omitted. University presses whose names derive from their location can be abbreviated (Oxford: OUP; Cambridge: CUP; etc.), providing this is done consistently. See 18.2.9 for guidance on place of publication.

18.2.11 Date

The use of parentheses around a date in a bibliographic citation implies publication. See 18.4 and 18.6 for dates of unpublished works. Always cite the date of the edition that has been consulted. This date is usually found on the title page or the copyright page; for older books it may appear only in the colophon, a publishing device added to the last page of the book. Dates given in Roman numerals should be rendered into Arabic numerals.

When no date of publication is listed, use the latest copyright date. When multiple dates are given ignore the dates of later printings and impressions, but when using a new or revised edition use that date. If no date can be found at all, use n.d. (‘no date’) instead. Alternatively, if the date is known from other sources, it can be supplied in square brackets:

C. F. Schreiber, A Note on Faust Translations (n.d. [c.1930])
Works published over a period of time require a date range:
Asloan, John, The Asloan Manuscript, ed. William A. Craigie, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1923–5).

When the book or edition is still in progress, an open-ended date is indicated by an en rule:

W. Schneemelcher, Bibliographia Patristica (Berlin, 1959–).

Cite a book that is to be published in the future as ‘forthcoming’ or ‘in press’. Do not guess, or supply a projected publication date as these often prove inaccurate.

18.2.12 Editions

When citing an edition later than the first it is necessary to include some extra publication information, which is usually found either on the title page or in the colophon. This may be an edition number, such as 2nd edn, or something more descriptive (rev. edn, rev. and enl. edn).


It is not necessary to identify first editions as such but subsequent editions should be numbered in ordinal form: 2nd, 23rd. As a general rule, edition details should appear within parentheses, in front of any other publication information:

Baker, J. H., An Introduction to English Legal History (3rd edn, 1990).
Denniston, J. D., The Greek Particles (2nd edn, Oxford, 1954).

When the edition being cited is singularly identified with a named editor, translator, or reviser the editor’s name appears at the head of the citation; the edition number directly follows the title and is not placed inside the parentheses that contain the publication details. This establishes that earlier editions are not associated with that editor:

Knowles, Elizabeth, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 5th edn (Oxford, 1999).

Citing more than one edition

Sometimes it is useful to include details of more than one edition. When this information is limited to publication details (edition, date and place of publication, and publisher) the information can remain within a single set of parentheses. When more information is needed (e.g. when a later edition has a different title and editor) it is clearer to close off the parentheses, insert a semi-colon, and continue:

Denniston, J. D., The Greek Particles (1934; 2nd edn, Oxford, 1954).
Denniston, J. D., The Greek Particles (Oxford, 1934; citations from 2nd edn, 1954).
Berkenhout, John, Outlines of the Natural History of Great Britain, 3 vols (London, 1769–72); rev. edn, as A Synopsis of the Natural History of Great Britain, 2 vols (London, 1789).

18.2.13 Reprints, reprint editions, and facsimiles

Reprint and facsimile editions are generally unchanged reproductions of the original book, perhaps with an added preface or index. It is always good practice to include the publication details of the original, especially the publication date if a significant period of time has elapsed between the edition and its reprint.

If the reprint has the same place of publication and publisher details as the original, these need not (though they may) be repeated. Best practice is to arrange the citation so that a reading from left to right follows the chronology of the work:

Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with introduction by Christopher Dawson, 6 vols (London, 1910; repr. 1974).
Allen, E., A Knack to Know a Knave (London, 1594; facs. edn, Oxford: Malone Society Reprints, 1963).
Joachim of Fiore, Psalterium decem cordarum (Venice, 1527; facs. edn, Frankfurt am Main, 1965).
Smith, Eliza, The Compleat Housewife, or, Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion (16th edn, London, 1758; facs. edn, London, 1994).

Reprints that include revisions can be described as such:

Southern, R. W., Saint Anselm: A Portrait in a Landscape (rev. repr., Cambridge, 1991).

Title change

A changed title should be included: the parentheses that hold details of the original publication are closed off and the reprint is described after a semicolon in the same fashion as for a later edition with an altered title (see above):

Hare, Cyril, When the Wind Blows (London, 1949); repr. as The Wind Blows Death (London, 1987).
Lower, Richard, Diatribæ Thomæ Willisii Doct. Med. & Profess. Oxon. De febribus Vindicatio adversus Edmundum De Meara Ormoniensem Hibernum M.D. (London, 1665); facs. edn with introduction, ed. and tr. Kenneth Dewhurst, as Richard Lower’s ‘Vindicatio’: A Defence of the Experimental Method (Oxford, 1983).

18.2.14 Translations

In a citation of a work in translation, the original author’s name comes first and the translator’s name after the title, prefixed by ‘tr.’ or ‘trans.’:

Bischoff, Bernhard, Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, tr. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín and David Ganz (Cambridge, 1990).
Martorell, Joanat, Tirant lo Blanc, tr. with foreword by David H. Rosenthal (London, 1984).

Details of the original edition may also be cited:

José Sarrau, Tapas y aperitivos (Madrid, 1975); tr. Francesca Piemonte Slesinger as Tapas and Appetizers (New York, 1987).

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