18 Bibliography

18.7 Audio and audiovisual materials

18.7.1 Introduction

For broadcasts and recordings the ordering of elements within a citation may differ according to the content of the recording or the purpose for which it is cited: sound recordings, for example, might be best listed under the name of the conductor, the name of the composer, or even the name of the ensemble. As with all citations, sufficient information should be given to enable the reader to understand what type of work it is, and how to find it.

18.7.2 Audio recordings

Essential elements to include are title (see 8.5 for typographical treatment of titles), recording company and catalogue number, and, if available, date of issue or copyright. Other useful information includes details of performers and composers, specific track information, recording date (especially if significantly different from date of issue), authorship and title of any sleeve notes that accompany the recording, and the exact type of recording (e.g. wax cylinder, 78 rpm, compact disc, audio file format), and a Uniform Resource Indicator (URI) if accessed online. The following examples show an appropriate style for presenting such information:

Carter, Elliott, The Four String Quartets, Juilliard String Quartet (Sony S2K 47229, 1991).
Davis, Miles, and others, ‘So What’, in Kind of Blue, rec. 1959 (Columbia CK 64935, 1997) [CD].
Vitry, Philippe de, Philippe de Vitry and the Ars Nova, Orlando Consort (Amon Ra CD-SAR 49, 1991) [incl. sleeve notes by Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, ‘Philippe de Vitry and the 14th-Century Motet’].

Audio recordings that combine different works without a clear single title may require more than one title:

Dutilleux, Henri, L’Arbre des songes, and Peter Maxwell Davies, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, André Previn, cond., Isaac Stern, violin, and Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (CBS MK 42449, 1987).

In recording numbers a hyphen rather than an en rule is the norm. Where a range of such numbers is given they should never be elided:

Lightnin’ Hopkins, The Complete Aladdin Recordings (EMI Blues Series CDP-7-96843-2, n.d.) [2-vol. CD set].

18.7.3 Films, videos, and broadcasts

See also 18.3. When citing audiovisual, video, and broadcast media, the three key elements that need to be included are:

  • • title of the piece (italic or single quotation marks), or a description of what the item is (roman):

    The Empire Strikes Back

    ‘How to Play Women’s Lacrosse’

    interview with Albert Einstein

  • • broadcasting or production details, including a date

  • • short description of the medium, unless this is already made clear by the context or a heading within the bibliography.

If the citation is of a digital version of a pre-digital film or broadcast, include details of the original work, the source type (video etc.), date of post, and URI.

‘Tony Hancock Face to Face interview 01’ with John Freeman [video], YouTube (televised by the BBC 7 February 1960, uploaded 17 March 2009), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnkovGeASzE

Podcasts can be treated similarly:

Fay Weldon, interview with Kirsty Young, Desert Island Discs Archive [podcast], BBC Radio 4 (9 May 2010), http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/dida05/all.


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