- 1 1.1 [puerta/ventana] closed, shut; [ojos/boca] closed, shut; [mejillones/almejas] closed la puerta estaba cerrada con llave the door was locked tenía los ojos cerrados she had her eyes closed o/or shut el frasco no está bien cerrado the top ( o/or lid etc) isn't on properly, the jar isn't closed properly un sobre cerrado a sealed envelope las cortinas estaban cerradas the curtains were drawn o/or closed normalmente tenemos la mesa cerrada we usually keep the table closed/down 1.2 [válvula] closed, shut off los grifos están cerrados the taps are turned off
- 2 [tienda/restaurante/museo] closed, shut cerrado closed cerrado por defunción/reformas closed owing to bereavement/for alterations
- 3 3.1 (confinado, limitado) [espacio/recinto] enclosed 3.2 (cargado) [ambiente] stuffy 3.3 [grupo] un círculo de amigos muy cerrado a very closed circle of friends un club de ambiente cerrado y snob a club with a very exclusive and snobbish atmosphere 3.4 [Matemáticas/Mathematics] [serie/conjunto] closed circuito
- 4 [Lingüística/Linguistics] 4.1 [vocal] close, closed 4.2 [acento/dialecto] broad tiene un acento andaluz cerrado he has a broad o/or thick Andalusian accent
- 6 6.1 (nublado) overcast 6.2 (referiéndose a la noche) ya era noche cerrada cuando salimos when we left it was already completely dark
- 8 (enérgico) lo recibieron con una cerrada ovación he was given an ecstatic reception mantienen una cerrada pugna por el título they are engaged in a fierce fight for the title
- 9 [persona] 9.1 (poco receptivo, intransigente) son muy cerrados y no se adaptan a estas novedades they're very set in their ways and they won't adapt to these new ideas no lo vas a convencer, es muy cerrado you'll never persuade him, he's very stubborn o/or he's very set in his waysestar cerrado
aalgo está cerrado a todo lo que signifique cambiar his mind is closed to o/or he's against anything that involves change el país ha estado cerrado durante años a todo tipo de influencias externas the country has, for years, been shut off from all outside influence 9.2 (poco comunicativo) uncommunicative 9.3 [familiar/colloquial] (torpe) dense [familiar/colloquial], thick [familiar/colloquial] es muy cerrado de mollera he's very dense [familiar/colloquial], he's as thick as two short planks (inglés británico/British English) [familiar/colloquial]
Here is a selection of useful words and phrases you will need in real-life situations while you're visiting Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries...
Spain had three civil wars known as the guerras carlistas (1833-39, 1860, 1872-76). When Fernando VII died in 1833, he was succeeded not by his brother the Infante Don Carlos de Borbón, but by his daughter Isabel, under the regency of her mother María Cristina. This provoked a mainly northern-Spanish revolt, with local guerrillas pitted against the forces of the central government. The Carlist Wars were also a confrontation between conservative rural Catholic Spain, especially the Basque provinces and Aragón, led by the carlistas, and the progressive liberal urban middle classes allied with the army. Carlos died in 1855, but the carlistas, representing political and religious traditionalism, supported his descendants' claims until reconciliation in 1977 with King Juan Carlos.