- 1.1 (alboroto, ruido) racket [familiar/colloquial], row [familiar/colloquial], ruckus (inglés norteamericano/American English) [familiar/colloquial] 1.2 (confusión) muddle, mess; (desorden) mess; (problemas) hassle [familiar/colloquial] me armo un jaleo con estas calles I get into a muddle o/or I get confused with these streets perdón por este jaleo, es que acabo de llegar de viaje excuse the mess, I've just got back from a trip 1.3 (actividad intensa) hemos tenido mucho jaleo en casa everything's been very hectic at home con todo el jaleo de la mudanza with all the upheaval of the move 1.4 (riña) brawl aquí no quiero jaleos I don't want any brawling here
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Spain's War of Independence against Napoleon Bonaparte's French occupation was ignited by the popular revolt in Madrid on 2 May 1808 against the French army. With support from the Duke of Wellington, Spanish resistance continued for over five years in a guerra de guerrillas which gave the world the concept and the term guerrilla warfare. The autocratic Fernando VII was restored to the throne in 1814, and his first act was to abolish the progressive Constitution of Cadiz adopted in 1812.