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carl US English

A peasant or man of low birth

Auer, Carl US English

Baron von Welsbach (1858–1929), Austrian chemist. He separated the supposed rare earth element didymium into neodymium and praseodymium

Jung, Carl US English

(1875–1961), Swiss psychologist; full name Carl Gustav Jung. He originated the concept of introvert and extrovert personality and of the four psychological functions of sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling

Orff, Carl US English

(1895–1982), German composer. He is best known for his secular cantata Carmina Burana (1937), based on a collection of characteristically bawdy medieval Latin poems

Albert, Carl US English

(1908–2000), US politician. A Democrat from Oklahoma, he served in the US House of Representatives 1947–77 and became Speaker of the House in 1971

Andre, Carl US English

(1935-), US sculptor. Many of his works are ready-made units, such as bricks, stacked according to a mathematical system and without adhesives or joints

Lewis, Carl US English

(1961-), US track and field athlete; full name Frederick Carleton Lewis. He won Olympic gold medals in 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996 (his ninth) for sprinting and the long jump and broke the world record for the 100 meters on several occasions

Reiner, Carl US English

(1922-), US television writer and actor. He was a writer for Caesar’s Hour (1954–57) and wrote for and acted on The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961–66). He also directed movies such as Oh God! (1977), The Jerk (1979), and That Old Feeling (1997). His son Rob Reiner (1947-) (full name Robert Norman Reiner), noted for his role as the son-in-law on television’s All in the Family 1971–78, became a director, with such movies as The Princess Bride (1987), When Harry Met Sally (1989), The American President (1995), Ghosts of Mississippi (1996), and The Bucket List (2007)

Rowan, Carl US English

(1925–2000), US journalist and specialist in race relations; full name Carl Thomas Rowan. He wrote a nationally syndicated column from 1965. The US ambassador to Finland 1963–64, he went on to direct the US Information Agency 1964–65

Sagan, Carl US English

(1934–96), US astronomer; full name Carl Edward Sagan. He showed that amino acids can be synthesized in an artificial primordial soup irradiated by ultraviolet light, as a model for a possible mechanism of the origin of life on Earth. He wrote several popular science books and coproduced the television series Cosmos (1980)

Spaatz, Carl US English

(1891–1974), US Air Force officer; born Carl Andrew Spatz. He directed the US bombing force against Germany in 1944 and against Japan in 1945, including the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1947–48, he served as the first chief of staff of the newly separate US Air Force

Stokes, Carl US English

(1927–96), US politician; full name Carl Burton Stokes. He was the first African-American mayor of a major US city (Cleveland 1968–72). After serving as mayor, he was a newscaster and a municipal court judge before being appointed as US ambassador to the Seychelles 1993–96

Zeiss, Carl US English

(1816–88), German optical instrument-maker. He established a workshop in Jena in 1846, which developed into the company which bears his name today

Perkins, Carl US English

(1932–98), US singer and songwriter. A rockabilly artist, he wrote and recorded “Blue Suede Shoes” (1955), which became his first big hit. His albums include Matchbox (1977) and Go, Cat, Go (1993)

Sandburg, Carl US English

(1878–1967), US poet and biographer. His poetry is collected in Chicago Poems (1915), Smoke and Steel (1920), Complete Poems (1950), and Honey and Salt (1963). He is also noted for his biography of Abraham Lincoln, written in six volumes (Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, two volumes, and Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, four volumes) between 1926 and 1939

Bernstein, Carl US English

(1944-), US journalist. He was the Washington Post reporter who, with Bob Woodward, broke the story of the 1972 Watergate burglary and traced the financial payoffs to President Nixon. With Woodward, he wrote All The President’s Men (1974) and The Final Days (1976)

Yastrzemski, Carl US English

(1939-) US baseball player; known as Yaz; full name Carl Michael Yastrzemski. With the Boston Red Sox from 1961 until 1983, he had 452 career home runs and 3,419 career hits. Baseball Hall of Fame (1989)

Anderson, Carl David US English

(1905–91), US physicist. In 1932, he discovered the positron—the first antiparticle known. Nobel Prize for Physics (1936), shared with Victor F. Hess

Fabergé, Peter Carl US English

(1846–1920), Russian goldsmith and jeweler. He is known for the intricate Easter eggs that he made for Tsar Alexander III and other royalty

Goldmark, Peter Carl US English

(1906–77), Hungarian-born American inventor and engineer. He made the first colour television broadcast in 1940, invented the long-playing record in 1948, and pioneered video cassette recording

Mosander, Carl Gustaf US English

(1797–1858), Swedish chemist. He discovered the elements lanthanum, erbium, and terbium, and the supposed element didymium

Nielsen, Carl August US English

(1865–1931), Danish composer. He is best known for his six symphonies (1890–1925)

Pauling, Linus Carl US English

(1901–94), US chemist. He is renowned for his study of molecular structure and chemical bonding. His suggestion of a helical structure for proteins formed the foundation for the elucidation of the structure of DNA. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1954)

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm US English

(1742–86), Swedish chemist. He discovered a number of substances including glycerol, chlorine, and oxygen

Weber, Carl Maria von US English

(1786–1826), German composer; full name Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber. He is regarded as the founder of the German romantic school of opera. Notable works: Der Freischütz (1817–21) and Euryanthe (1822–23)

Carl Bosch in Bergius, Friedrich US English

(1884–1949), German industrial chemist; full name Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius. Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1931), shared with Carl Bosch (1874–1940)

Wilhelm Carl in Grimm US English

Family name of brothers Jacob Ludwig Carl (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Carl (1786–1859), German philologists and folklorists. In 1852, they inaugurated a dictionary of German on historical principles, which was eventually completed by other scholars in 1960. They also compiled an anthology of German fairy tales, which appeared in three volumes between 1812 and 1822

Carl von Linné in Linnaeus, Carolus US English

(1707–78), Swedish botanist; founder of modern systematic botany and zoology; Latinized name of Carl von Linné. He devised an authoritative classification system for flowering plants involving binomial Latin names (later superseded by that of Antoine Jussieu) and also a classification method for animals

Carl von Linné in Linnaeus New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

, Carolus (1707–78), Swedish founder of systematic botany and zoology; Latinized name of Carl von Linné

Jacob Ludwig Carl in Grimm US English

Family name of brothers Jacob Ludwig Carl (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Carl (1786–1859), German philologists and folklorists. In 1852, they inaugurated a dictionary of German on historical principles, which was eventually completed by other scholars in 1960. They also compiled an anthology of German fairy tales, which appeared in three volumes between 1812 and 1822

Carl Gustav Jung in Jung, Carl US English

(1875–1961), Swiss psychologist; full name Carl Gustav Jung. He originated the concept of introvert and extrovert personality and of the four psychological functions of sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling

Carl Thomas Rowan in Rowan, Carl US English

(1925–2000), US journalist and specialist in race relations; full name Carl Thomas Rowan. He wrote a nationally syndicated column from 1965. The US ambassador to Finland 1963–64, he went on to direct the US Information Agency 1964–65

Carl Edward Sagan in Sagan, Carl US English

(1934–96), US astronomer; full name Carl Edward Sagan. He showed that amino acids can be synthesized in an artificial primordial soup irradiated by ultraviolet light, as a model for a possible mechanism of the origin of life on Earth. He wrote several popular science books and coproduced the television series Cosmos (1980)

Carl Andrew Spatz in Spaatz, Carl US English

(1891–1974), US Air Force officer; born Carl Andrew Spatz. He directed the US bombing force against Germany in 1944 and against Japan in 1945, including the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1947–48, he served as the first chief of staff of the newly separate US Air Force

Bach, Johann Sebastian US English

(1685–1750), German composer. An exceptional and prolific baroque composer, his compositions range from violin concertos, suites, and the six Brandenburg Concertos (1720–21) to clavier works and sacred cantatas. Large-scale choral works include The Passion according to St. John (1723), The Passion according to St. Matthew (1729), and the Mass in B minor (1733–38). Three of his sons were also well-known composers: J. C. Bach (1735–82), known as the London Bach, full name Johann Christian Bach; J. C. F. Bach (1732–95), known as the Bückeburg Bach, full name Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach; and W. F. Bach (1710–84), known as the Halle Bach, full name Wilhelm Friedemann Bach

Carl Burton Stokes in Stokes, Carl US English

(1927–96), US politician; full name Carl Burton Stokes. He was the first African-American mayor of a major US city (Cleveland 1968–72). After serving as mayor, he was a newscaster and a municipal court judge before being appointed as US ambassador to the Seychelles 1993–96

Hamilton, Lewis US English

(B.1985), English motor-racing driver; full name Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton. He won the Formula One world championship in 2008

Carl (Clinton) Van Doren in Van Doren US English

Carl (Clinton) Van Doren (1885–1950), historian and literary critic, noted as the author of the biography Benjamin Franklin (1938)

Carl Michael Yastrzemski in Yastrzemski, Carl US English

(1939-) US baseball player; known as Yaz; full name Carl Michael Yastrzemski. With the Boston Red Sox from 1961 until 1983, he had 452 career home runs and 3,419 career hits. Baseball Hall of Fame (1989)

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in Bach New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

, Johann Sebastian (1685–1750), German composer; of his twenty children Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710–84) was an organist and composer, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714–88) wrote church music and keyboard sonatas, and Johann Christian Bach (1735–82) was music master to the British royal family

Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton in Hamilton, Lewis US English

(B.1985), English motor-racing driver; full name Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton. He won the Formula One world championship in 2008

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld in Hammarskjöld, Dag US English

(1905–61), Swedish diplomat and politician; full name Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld. As secretary general of the United Nations 1953–61, he was influential in the establishment of the UN emergency force in Sinai and Gaza 1956 and also initiated peace moves in the Middle East 1957–58. He was killed in a plane crash while on a peace mission in Congo. Nobel Peace Prize (1961, posthumously)

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber in Weber, Carl Maria von US English

(1786–1826), German composer; full name Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber. He is regarded as the founder of the German romantic school of opera. Notable works: Der Freischütz (1817–21) and Euryanthe (1822–23)


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