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Augustus British & World English

(63 bc-ad 14), the first Roman emperor; born Gaius Octavius; also called (until 27 bc) Octavian. He was adopted by the will of his great-uncle Julius Caesar and gained supreme power by his defeat of Antony in 31 bc. In 27 bc he was given the title Augustus (‘venerable’) and became in effect the first Roman emperor

Augustus New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

(63 bc–ad 14), the first Roman emperor; born Gaius Octavius; also called (until 27 bc) Octavian

John, Augustus British & World English

(1878–1961), Welsh painter; full name Augustus Edwin John. Frequent subjects of his work are the Gypsies of Wales; he was also noted for his portraits of the wealthy and famous, particularly prominent writers. He was the brother of Gwen John

Pitt-Rivers, Augustus British & World English

(1827–1900), English archaeologist and anthropologist; full name Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers. He developed a new scientific approach to archaeology. His collection of weapons and artefacts from different cultures formed the basis of the ethnological museum in Oxford which bears his name

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus British & World English

(1848–1907), US sculptor; born in Ireland. He is best remembered for his coin designs and for his sculptures, such as “General Sherman on Horseback” (1903) at the corner of New York City’s Central Park

Juilliard, Augustus D. British & World English

(1840–1919), US merchant and patron of music. In 1920, his will created the Juilliard Musical Foundation, which became the Juilliard School of Music in 1926

Menninger, Karl Augustus British & World English

(1893–1990), US psychiatrist. With his father he cofounded the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, 1920, where psychiatrists received training in psychoanalysis. In 1941, the Menninger Foundation, which he headed until 1990, was established

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore British & World English

(1812–52), English architect, theorist, and designer. He believed that the Gothic style was the only proper architectural style because of its origins in medieval Christian society. He is known particularly for his work on the external detail and internal fittings for the Houses of Parliament, designed by Sir Charles Barry

Cumberland, Duke of British & World English

(1721–65), English military commander, third son of George II; born William Augustus. He gained great notoriety (and his nickname ‘the Butcher’) for the severity of his suppression of the Jacobite clans in the aftermath of his victory at the Battle of Culloden (1746)

Philip2 British & World English

Philip II (1165–1223), son of Louis VII, reigned 1180–1223; known as Philip Augustus. After mounting a series of campaigns against the English kings Henry II, Richard I, and John, Philip succeeded in regaining Normandy (1204), Anjou (1204), and most of Poitou (1204-5)

William Augustus in Cumberland, Duke of British & World English

(1721–65), English military commander, third son of George II; born William Augustus. He gained great notoriety (and his nickname ‘the Butcher’) for the severity of his suppression of the Jacobite clans in the aftermath of his victory at the Battle of Culloden (1746)

Philip Augustus in Philip2 British & World English

Philip II (1165–1223), son of Louis VII, reigned 1180–1223; known as Philip Augustus. After mounting a series of campaigns against the English kings Henry II, Richard I, and John, Philip succeeded in regaining Normandy (1204), Anjou (1204), and most of Poitou (1204-5)

Grafton, 3rd Duke of British & World English

(1735–1811), British Whig statesman, Prime Minister 1768–70; born Augustus Henry Fitzroy

Augustus Edwin John in John, Augustus British & World English

(1878–1961), Welsh painter; full name Augustus Edwin John. Frequent subjects of his work are the Gypsies of Wales; he was also noted for his portraits of the wealthy and famous, particularly prominent writers. He was the brother of Gwen John

George Augustus Moore in Moore, George British & World English

(1852–1933), Irish novelist; full name George Augustus Moore. Notable works: A Mummer’s Wife (1885) and Esther Waters (1894)

Augustus Henry Fitzroy in Grafton, 3rd Duke of British & World English

(1735–1811), British Whig statesman, Prime Minister 1768–70; born Augustus Henry Fitzroy

Charles Augustus Lindbergh in Lindbergh, Charles British & World English

(1902–74), American aviator; full name Charles Augustus Lindbergh. In 1927 he made the first solo transatlantic flight in a single-engined monoplane, Spirit of St Louis. He moved to Europe with his wife to escape the publicity surrounding the kidnap and murder of his two-year-old son in 1932

Titus Vespasianus Augustus in Titus1 British & World English

(Ad 39-81), Roman emperor 79-81, son of Vespasian; full name Titus Vespasianus Augustus; born Titus Flavius Vespasianus. In 70 he ended a revolt in Judaea with the conquest of Jerusalem

Douglass, Frederick British & World English

(1817–95), US abolitionist and writer; born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and became an anti-slavery lecturer. He established an anti-slavery newspaper North Star (1847–64) and published his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845, revised 1892)

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey in Douglass, Frederick British & World English

(1817–95), US abolitionist and writer; born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and became an anti-slavery lecturer. He established an anti-slavery newspaper North Star (1847–64) and published his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845, revised 1892)

Sir James Augustus Henry Murray in Murray, Sir James British & World English

(1837–1915), Scottish lexicographer; full name Sir James Augustus Henry Murray. He was chief editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, but did not live to see the work completed

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus in Tiberius British & World English

(42 bc-ad 37), Roman emperor ad 14-37; full name Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus. The adopted successor of his stepfather and father-in-law Augustus, he became increasingly tyrannical and his reign was marked by a growing number of treason trials and executions

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus in Tiberius New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

(42 bc–ad 37), Roman emperor ad 14–37; Latin name Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus in Nero British & World English

(Ad 37-68), Roman emperor 54-68; full name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Infamous for his cruelty, he wantonly executed leading Romans. His reign witnessed a fire which destroyed half of Rome in 64

Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers in Pitt-Rivers, Augustus British & World English

(1827–1900), English archaeologist and anthropologist; full name Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers. He developed a new scientific approach to archaeology. His collection of weapons and artefacts from different cultures formed the basis of the ethnological museum in Oxford which bears his name

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus in Nero New Oxford Dictionary for Writers & Editors

(ad 37–68), Roman emperor 54–68; Latin name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus in Aurelius, Marcus British & World English

(121–80), Roman emperor 161–80; full name Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was occupied for much of his reign with wars against invading Germanic tribes. His Meditations, a collection of aphorisms and reflections, are evidence of his philosophical nature

Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus in Caracalla British & World English

(188–217), Roman emperor 211–17; born Septimius Bassanius; later called Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus. In 212 he granted Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire