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Charles1 British & World English

The name of two kings of England, Scotland, and Ireland:

Charles2 British & World English

The name of four kings of Spain:

Charles4 British & World English

The name of seven Holy Roman emperors:

Charles, Prince British & World English

Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales (b.1948), heir apparent to Elizabeth II. He married Lady Diana Spencer in 1981; the couple had two children, Prince William Arthur Philip Louis (b.1982) and Prince Henry Charles Albert David (known as Prince Harry, b.1984), and were divorced in 1996. In 2005 he married Mrs Camilla Parker Bowles (b.1947); she became HRH the Duchess of Cornwall

Charles, Ray British & World English

(1930–2004), American pianist and singer; born Ray Charles Robinson. Totally blind from the age of 6, he drew on blues, jazz, and country music for songs such as ‘What’d I Say‘ (1959) and ’Georgia On My Mind' (1960)

Charles XII British & World English

(1682–1718), king of Sweden 1697–1718. In 1700 he embarked on the Great Northern War against Denmark, Poland-Saxony, and Russia. Initially successful, in 1709 he embarked on an expedition into Russia which ended in the destruction of his army and his internment

Charles VII British & World English

(1403–61), king of France 1422–61. At the time of his accession much of northern France was under English occupation. After the intervention of Joan of Arc, however, the French experienced a dramatic military revival and the defeat of the English ended the Hundred Years War

Charles' law British & World English

A law stating that the volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature

Charles in Charles' law British & World English

A law stating that the volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature

Charles in Wesley, John British & World English

(1703–91), English preacher and co-founder of Methodism. Wesley was a committed Christian evangelist who won many working-class converts, often through open-air preaching. The opposition they encountered from the Church establishment led to the Methodists forming a separate denomination in 1791. His brother Charles (1707–88) was also a founding Methodist, and both wrote many hymns

Boyer, Charles British & World English

(1897–1978), French-born American actor. Before going to Hollywood in the 1930s he enjoyed a successful stage career in France. Notable films: Mayerling (1936), Gaslight (1944), and Barefoot in the Park (1968)

Charles River British & World English

A river that flows for 60 miles (100 km) through eastern Massachusetts, between Cambridge and Boston, to Boston Harbor

Cruft, Charles British & World English

(1852–1939), English showman. In 1886 he initiated the first dog show in London. The Crufts dog shows are now held annually

Ellet, Charles British & World English

(1810–62), US engineer. In 1841–42, he built the first public wire suspension bridge in the US, across the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia

Grey, Charles British & World English

2nd Earl (1764–1845), British statesman, Prime Minister 1830-4. His government passed the first Reform Act (1832) as well as important factory legislation and the Act abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire

Ives, Charles British & World English

(1874–1954), American composer, noted for his use of polyrhythms, polytonality, quarter-tones, and aleatoric techniques; full name Charles Edward Ives. Notable works: The Unanswered Question (chamber work, 1906) and Three Places in New England (for orchestra, 1903–14)

Lake Charles British & World English

An industrial port city in southwestern Louisiana, on the Calcasieu River; population 71,061 (est. 2008)

Lamb, Charles British & World English

(1775–1834), English essayist and critic. Together with his sister Mary he wrote Tales from Shakespeare (1807). Other notable works: Essays of Elia (1823)

Pathé, Charles British & World English

(1863–1957), French film pioneer. In 1896 he and his brothers founded a company which came to dominate the production and distribution of films. It became internationally known for its newsreels, first introduced in France in 1909

Saint Charles British & World English

A historic commercial city in east central Missouri, on the Missouri River; population 64,386 (est. 2008)

Sturt, Charles British & World English

(1795–1869), English explorer. He led three expeditions into the Australian interior, becoming the first European to discover the Darling River (1828) and the source of the Murray (1830)

Addams, Charles British & World English

(1912–88), US cartoonist, noted for his macabre characters, which were brought to life in the television series The Addams Family (1964–66), which was the basis for two movies in the 1990s; full name Charles Samuel Addams. His cartoons appeared in The New Yorker magazine from 1935

Babbage, Charles British & World English

(1791–1871), English mathematician, inventor, and pioneer of machine computing. He designed a mechanical computer with Ada Lovelace but was unable to complete it in his lifetime

Barkley, Charles British & World English

(1963-), US basketball player; full name Charles Wade Barkley. He played for the Philadelphia 76ers 1984–92, the Phoenix Suns 1992–96, and the Houston Rockets 1996–2000. He was also a member of the US Olympic "Dream Team" in 1992. Basketball Hall of Fame (2006)

Blondin, Charles British & World English

(1824–97), French acrobat; born Jean-François Gravelet. He is famous for walking across a tightrope suspended over Niagara Falls on several occasions

Charles Martel British & World English

(Circa 688–741), Frankish ruler of the eastern part of the Frankish kingdom from 715 and the whole kingdom from 719, grandfather of Charlemagne. His rule marked the beginning of Carolingian power

Darwin, Charles British & World English

(1809–82), English natural historian and geologist, proponent of the theory of evolution by natural selection; full name Charles Robert Darwin. Darwin was the naturalist on HMS Beagle for her voyage around the southern hemisphere (1831-6), during which he collected the material which became the basis for his ideas on natural selection. His works On the Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871) had a fundamental effect on our concepts of nature and humanity’s place within it

Dickens, Charles British & World English

(1812–70), English novelist; full name Charles John Huffam Dickens

Harrod, Charles British & World English

(1799–1885), English grocer and tea merchant; full name Charles Henry Harrod. In 1853 he took over a shop in Knightsbridge, London, which, after expansion by his son Charles Digby Harrod (1841–1905), became a prestigious department store

Lebrun, Charles British & World English

(1619–90), French painter, designer, and decorator. He was prominent in the development and institutionalization of French art and was a leading exponent of French classicism. In 1648 he helped to found the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris

Manson, Charles British & World English

(B.1934), American cult leader. He founded a commune based on free love and complete subordination to him. In 1969 its members carried out a series of murders, including that of the American actress Sharon Tate, for which he and some followers received the death sentence (later commuted to life imprisonment)

Martel, Charles British & World English

See Charles Martel.

Messier, Charles British & World English

(1730–1817), French astronomer. He discovered a number of nebulae, galaxies, and star clusters, which he designated by M numbers. Almost all of these designations, such as M1 (the Crab Nebula), are still in use today

Mingus, Charles British & World English

(1922–79), American jazz bassist and composer. A leading figure of the 1940s jazz scene, he experimented with atonality and was influenced by gospel and blues. His compositions include ‘Goodbye Porkpie Hat’

Schulz, Charles British & World English

(1922–2000), American cartoonist. He is remembered as the creator of the ‘Peanuts’ comic strip which features a range of characters including the boy Charlie Brown and the dog Snoopy

Wilkes, Charles British & World English

(1798–1877), US naval officer and explorer. He determined that Antarctica is a continent during an 1838–42 expedition. Antarctica’s Wilkes Land was named in his honor. In 1861, he was involved in the Trent Affair, an incident on the high seas in which Confederate commissioners to England and France were forcibly detained by the US navy

Baudelaire, Charles British & World English

(1821–67), French poet and critic; full name Charles Pierre Baudelaire. He is largely known for Les Fleurs du mal (1857), a series of 101 lyrics that explore his isolation and melancholy and the attraction of evil and the macabre

Charles's Wain British & World English

The Plough in Ursa Major

Cornwallis, Charles British & World English

1st Marquis (1738–1805), English military commander. He surrendered the British forces at Yorktown in 1781, ending the fighting in the American Revolution

de Gaulle, Charles British & World English

(1890–1970), French general and statesman, head of government 1944-6, President 1959–69; full name Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle. A wartime organizer of the Free French movement, he is remembered particularly for his assertive foreign policy and for quelling the student uprisings and strikes of May 1968

Goodyear, Charles British & World English

(1800–60), American inventor. He developed the process of the vulcanization of rubber, after accidentally dropping some rubber mixed with sulphur and white lead on to a hot stove

Kingsley, Charles British & World English

(1819–75), English novelist and clergyman. He is remembered for his historical novel Westward Ho! (1855) and for his classic children’s story The Water-Babies (1863)

Laughton, Charles British & World English

(1899–1962), British-born American actor. He is remembered for character roles such as Henry VIII (The Private Life of Henry VIII, 1933); he also played Quasimodo in The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939)

Lindbergh, Charles British & World English

(1902–74), American aviator; full name Charles Augustus Lindbergh. In 1927 he made the first solo transatlantic flight in a single-engined monoplane, Spirit of St Louis. He moved to Europe with his wife to escape the publicity surrounding the kidnap and murder of his two-year-old son in 1932

Perrault, Charles British & World English

(1628–1703), French writer. He is remembered for his Mother Goose Tales (1697), containing such fairy tales as ‘Sleeping Beauty’, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’, ‘Puss in Boots’, and ‘Cinderella’

Barry, Sir Charles British & World English

(1795–1860), English architect, designer of the Houses of Parliament

Fox, Charles James British & World English

(1749–1806), British statesman. He became a Whig MP in 1768, supporting American independence and the French Revolution, and collaborated with Lord North to form a coalition government (1783-4)

Gaulle, Charles de British & World English

See de Gaulle, Charles.

Hallé, Sir Charles British & World English

(1819–95), German-born pianist and conductor; born Karl Halle. He left Paris in 1848 and settled in Manchester, where he founded the Hallé Orchestra (1858)

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